The God of Israel vs. the "gods" of Egypt
" . . . against all the gods of Egypt, I will execute judgement: I am the LORD" (Exodus 12:12)

#PlagueSpecial FeaturesEgyptian Worship
1Polluted Nile (7:14-25)Dead fish, putrid smell, undrinkable water, Egyptian magicians duplicated plague on small scale but could not reverse it. Lasted seven daysThe Nile itself; Khnum (guardian of river's source); Hapi (spirit of Nile); Osiris (Nile was his bloodstream); various fish deities; Hapi (crocodiles)
2Frogs (8:1-15)Magicians duplicated plague but could not reverse itHapi and Heqt (frog goddesses both related to fertility)
3Dust and Gnats (8:16-19)No warning given. Magicians unable to duplicate plague. The attributed it to "the finger of God" (8:19)Seb (earth god)
4Swarms of Flies (8:20-32)Did not affect Goshen, the region where the Israelites lived. Pharaoh offered first two compromisesUatchit (fly god)
5Death of Domestic Animals (9:1-7)No warning given. First plague directly affecting personal property. Israelite animals unaffectedPtah, Hathor, Mnevis, Amon (gods associated with bulls and cows)
6Boils (9:8-12)No warning given. First plague directly affecting personal health. Magicians unable to appear at court because of boilsSekhmet (goddess of epidemics); Serapis and Imhotep (gods of healing)
7Hail and Fire (9:13-35)Most of Egypt gets little or no rain. This storm had no historical parallel. Goshen again untouched. First of Pharaoh's "confessions"Nut (sky goddess); Isis and Seth (agricultural deities); Shu (atmosphere)
8Locusts (10:1-20)Egypt's crop loss: 100%. Pharaoh offers third compromise, second "confession"Serapia (protector from locusts)
9Darkness (10:21-29)Israel apparently had light in Goshen. Lasted three daysRe, Amon-Re, Aten, Atum, Horus, Harakhte (sun gods); Thoth (moon god)
10Death of First Born (11-12)Specifically designated by God as the final plague. First-born slain in every Egyptian household. Pharaoh expels Israel unconditionallyAll of Egypt's gods, including Pharaoh himself
All bible references from the book of Exodus